Introduction

Within framework of the state concern to protect the health of the Egyptian citizen, the National Telecommunication Regulatory Authority (NTRA) in collaboration with the National Telecommunications and Information (NTI), Ministry of Health and the Ministry of Environmental Affairs prepared and issued the Egyptian Environmental Modified Protocol for Macro cell Rollout on 13th August 2000.

The Macro cell protocol was modified in order to keep pace with the developments taking place in the field of ICT and in accordance with the studies, experiments and researches developed by the specialized international organizations and scientific institutes working in the filed of health and environment and in electrical, electronic and electro-magnetic rays (such as: WHO, American National Standards Institute(ANSI), International Electro-technical Commission (IEC), International Commission on Non-ionizing Radiation Protection and Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) .

Modification of the protocol was carried as well in accordance with the revision of the safety standards applied as well as with the results of the aforementioned researches especially those related to the electromagnetic influence of these stations, which are safe to human beings as long as they comply with conditions detailed in the Second article.

First: Definitions

  • Mast: the metallic tower fixed on the top of the roof of a building for purpose of loading one antenna.
  • Pylon: the metallic tower fixed on the top of the roof of a building or on earth for purpose of carrying more than one antenna.
  • Antenna: the part that emits and receives electromagnetic waves in every station.
  • Electromagnetic power: power of electromagnetic waves directly related to the absorption capacity of the human cells.
  • The main beam: the beam emitted from the front part of the antenna used in the station
  • Non-metallic fence: a fence made of non-metallic materials surrounding the antenna to guarantee not getting closer to the antennas.
  • Human element: the human being.
 
Second: Stipulations

  1. 1- The height of the building on the top of which antennae is to be installed should range from minimum 15 meters to maximum 50 meters from ground level inside the residential area. In case such building with the specified height is not available, antennas are fixed on a metal pylon or mast, so that antennas are at least from 15 to 50 meters high from the ground. As for the buildings that exceed 50 meters in height inside the residential area, mobile operators must seek the approval of the Egyptian Environmental Affairs Agency, EEAA, first. Mobile operators must fill the Environmental Assessment Form (B) and send it to EEAA via the competent administrative authority.  The maximum height condition is not applicable in case the metallic towers (bearing more than one antenna) are installed outside the residential area and highways.
  2. The height of the Macro cell antennas must be more than that of the surrounding buildings within10-meter-radius circle.
  3. The roof of the building (on which the antennas are fixed) must be made of reinforced concrete.
  4. It is prohibited to install more than one transmitting antenna on the same mast. In case more than one antenna are installed, a metal pylon could be fixed in a way that the antennas mounted are at least 6 meters high measured from the roof of the building. No more than 3 transmitting antennas and three receiving antennas should be mounted on the same level.  However, in case of integrated antennas (transmitting and receiving), only three can be mounted on the same level in addition to the linking dishes. In case antennas are fixed on different levels on the same pylon,  vertical distance between the antennas centers should not be less than 4 meters between each two consecutive levels.
  5. The horizontal distance between the centers of two pylons on the same building must not be less than 12 meters.
  6. The antennas used must be high-gain antennas and the front gain compared to the back gain must not be less than 20 db. 
  7. When the antennas are mounted, the horizontal distance between them and human beings must be not less than 6 meters in the direction of the main beam.
  8. It is prohibited to install antennas on top of balconies that are not protected by a ceiling made of reinforced concrete.
  9. Antennas can not be installed on buildings that are completely utilized as hospitals to avoid any interference with the medical devices used.
  10. To ensure that antennas are not approached, the roof should be entirely closed otherwise pylons and masts should be surrounded with non-metal fence surrounding the pylon on a distance of 6 meters from its center. Masts fixed on the edge of the building roof shall be surrounded by a fence at a distance of 2 meters from its center. Warning signs should be fixed.
  11. On installing the stations, mobile operators must abide by international standards of the permissible electromagnetic power density emitting from the antennas. Standards are issued by the World Health Organization (WHO), American National Standards Institute (ANSI), International Electro-technical Committee (IEC), International Commission on Non-ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP), Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineering (IEEE). The maximum permissible power density a human being can be safely exposed to must not exceed 0.4 mW/cm2 (CDMA-GSM 900 MHZ- GSM 1800 MHZ). The endorsed technology of measurement should be identified. 
  12. The distance between the antennas’ main beam and the playgrounds of children’s schools should not be less than 20 meters as children are more vulnerable to external effects than others.
​Third: 
According to Telecommunications Law No. 10 for 2003, NTRA is the only competent authority to monitor the companies’ adherence to the aforementioned technical conditions. To this end the NTRA carries out measurements, issue related certificates through making measurements, issuing conformity certificates and requesting the companies to implement the necessary modifications.

Fourth: 
The administrative bodies in the governorates that issue installation licenses must abide by the afore-mentioned conditions (reinforced concrete roofs- the evaluation of the impact on environment) before the issuance of the license.

Fifth: 
This protocol is applied on the main stations (Macro cell) for fixed telephones services and is deemed effective from the date of signature.

This protocol is signed on 17/2/2005

The Ministry of Health                    
The Ministry of Environmental Affairs
The Ministry of Telecommunications and Information Technology​